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Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is a type of cancer that begins in the stomach. The stomach is located just below the ribs in the upper middle of the abdomen., just below the ribs. The stomach aids in the breakdown and digestion of food.

Stomach cancer can occur anywhere in the stomach. The majority of stomach cancers in the world occur in the main part of the stomach.

One factor that healthcare providers consider when developing a treatment plan is where cancer begins in the stomach. Other factors may include the stage of cancer and the type of cells involved. Surgery to remove stomach cancer is frequently used in treatment. Other treatments may be used prior to and following surgery.

If the cancer is only in the stomach, stomach cancer treatment is most likely to be successful. Small stomach cancer patients have a favorable prognosis. Many people can be cured. Most stomach cancers are discovered when the disease has progressed and a cure is unlikely. Stomach cancer that spreads to other parts of the body or grows through the stomach wall is more difficult to treat.

Symptoms

The following are some of the signs and symptoms of stomach cancer:

  • Losing weight without making an effort
  • Having difficulty swallowing
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Having a bloated feeling after eating
  • Feeling of fullness even after having small amounts of food
  • Not feeling hungry when you should be hungry
  • Heartburn
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Losing weight without making an effort
  • Feeling of Tiredness always.
  • Stools that appear to be black

In its early stages, stomach cancer does not always cause symptoms. When they occur, symptoms may include indigestion and pain in the upper abdomen. Symptoms may not appear until the cancer has spread. Later stages of stomach cancer may cause symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss without effort, vomiting blood, and black stools.

Metastatic stomach cancer refers to stomach cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. It causes symptoms that vary depending on where it spreads. When cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, for example, it can cause lumps that can be felt through the skin. Cancer that spreads to the liver may cause skin and eye whites to yellow.

It may cause fluid to accumulate in the stomach. The stomach may appear swollen.

Causes

It is unknown what causes stomach cancer. Most stomach cancers, according to experts, begin when something damages the stomach lining. Examples include having a stomach infection, long-standing acid reflux, and eating a lot of salty foods. However, not everyone with these risk factors develops stomach cancer.

Stomach cancer develops when something damages cells in the stomach's inner lining. It causes changes in the DNA of the cells. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell the cell what to do. The modifications instruct the cells to multiply rapidly.

When healthy cells die as part of their natural life cycle, the cells can continue to live. This results in a large number of extra cells in the stomach. The cells can combine to form a mass known as a tumour.

When healthy cells die as part of their natural life cycle, the cells can continue to live. This results in a large number of extra cells in the stomach. The cells can combine to form a mass known as a tumour.

Cancer cells in the stomach have the ability to invade and destroy healthy body tissue. They may begin to grow deeper into the stomach wall. Cancer cells can break away and spread to other parts of the body over time. Metastasis occurs when cancer cells spread to another part of the body.

Stomach cancer types:

The type of stomach cancer you have is determined by the type of cell that started the cancer. The following are some examples of stomach cancer types:

Adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma stomach cancer begins in mucous-producing cells.This is the most common type of stomach cancer. Adenocarcinoma stomach cancers account for nearly all cancers that begin in the stomach.

Stromal tumours of the intestine (GIST). GIST begins in special nerve cells found in the stomach wall and other digestive organs. GIST is classified as a soft tissue sarcoma.

Tumors that are carcinoid. Carcinoid tumours are neuroendocrine cancers that begin in the cells. Neuroendocrine cells can be found throughout the body. They perform some nerve cell functions as well as some of the work of cells that produce hormones. Carcinoid tumours are neuroendocrine tumours.

Lymphoma. Lymphoma is a cancer that starts in immune system cells.l The immune system of the body fights germs. Lymphoma can begin in the stomach if the body sends immune system cells there. This could occur if the body is attempting to fight off an infection. Non-lymphoma Hodgkin's is the most common type of lymphoma that begins in the stomach.

Risk Elements

The risk of stomach cancer is increased by the following factors:

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease refers to persistent problems with stomach acid backing up into the oesophagus.
  • A diet high in smoked and salted foods
  • A diet deficient in fruits and vegetables
  • Infection of the stomach caused by Helicobacter pylori.
  • Gastritis is the swelling and irritation of the inside of the stomach.
  • Polyps are noncancerous cell growths in the stomach caused by smoking.
  • Family history of stomach cancer and other cancers, such as hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, Lynch syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis

Prevention

You can reduce your risk of stomach cancer by doing the following:

Consume an abundance of fruits and vegetables. Every day, try to include fruits and vegetables in your diet. Choose a variety of brightly colored fruits and vegetables.

Reduce your intake of salty and smoked foods. Limit these foods to protect your stomach.

Quit smoking. Quit smoking if you smoke. Don't start smoking if you don't already. Smoking increases your chances of developing stomach cancer as well as many other types of cancer. To quit smoking it's better to take advice from the doctor as self-quitting is very difficult.

Inform your doctor if stomach cancer runs in your family. People with a strong family history of stomach cancer may be screened for the disease. Screening tests can detect stomach cancer before it becomes a problem.

Diagnosis For Stomach Cancer

Endoscopy - To look for signs of cancer, your doctor may use a tiny camera to look inside your stomach. Upper endoscopy is the medical term for this procedure. A thin tube containing a tiny camera is passed down the throat and into the stomach.

Obtaining a tissue sample for testing. If something that appears to be cancer is discovered in your stomach, it may be removed for testing. This is known as a biopsy. It is possible to perform it during an upper endoscopy. To obtain the tissue sample, special tools are passed down the tube, and sample is sent to analyse in the laboratory for any cancerous growth

Identifying the Stage of Gastric Cancer If you are diagnosed with stomach cancer, you may undergo additional tests to determine whether the cancer has spread. This information is used to classify cancer. The stage informs your provider about the extent of your cancer and your prognosis. The following tests and procedures are used to determine the stage of stomach cancer:

Blood tests are performed. A blood test cannot detect stomach cancer. Blood tests can provide your provider with information about your health.

Another type of blood test looks for cancer cell fragments in the blood. This is referred to as a circulating tumour DNA test. It is only used in specific cases for people with stomach cancer. For example, if you have advanced cancer and cannot have a biopsy, this test may be used. Collecting blood cell fragments can provide your medical team with information to help plan your treatment.

Ultrasound of the stomach. Ultrasound is a type of imaging test that uses sound waves to create images. Images of stomach cancer can show how far cancer has spread into the stomach wall.

An ultrasound - may be used to examine lymph nodes near the stomach. The images can be used to guide a needle used to collect tissue from lymph nodes. The tissue is examined in a lab for cancer cells.

Imaging examinations - Imaging tests generate images that your doctor can use to look for signs of stomach cancer spread. Cancer cells in nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body could be seen in the images. CT scans and positron emission tomography are two possible tests (PET).

Surgery - When imaging tests do not provide a clear picture of your cancer, surgery may be required to see inside your body. Surgery can detect cancer that has spread, also known as metastasized cancer. Surgery may assist your medical team in ensuring that there are no small bits of cancer on the liver or in the stomach.